Monday, 28 December 2015

Why Do We Lie- The Psychology Behind It

It is estimated that every day we hear or read lies more than 200, many of them our creation.Because basically humans are downright liars we need lustrous appear to others to accept us and believe us to our own fabrications that lie undetected. Humans lie.And a lot. The first action of the human being, according to the biblical account, was to lie or be deceived by a lie. And then, manifest a great sense of guilt, covering their naked bodies hide and blame others. Although actually he lied who was the serpent, "beating the animal".
Why Do We Lies- The Psychology Behind It

Animals also lie

Indeed, deception has a long and storied history in the evolution of human social life.Not only them. Also the animals lie The more sophisticated the animal, most common are their games of deception and Ladino its features . Chimpanzees and orang-utans are great simulators. Richard Byrne and Nadia Corp of the Scottish University of St. Andrews, found a direct relationship between brain size and the furtive nature of primates: a higher average volume of the neocortex of primates, the greater the possibility that the monkey or ape to star in a distraction. For example, when a young baboon was pursued by his angry mother, he determined to punish the animal suddenly interrupted their march, stood and began to look at the horizon with attention ... to distract the whole group and encourage them to prepare for the arrival of non-existent intruders. And if the monkeys hidden intentions, reptiles swell their membranes to look great and dangerous. It is the zoological camouflage strategy (the polar bear white merges with the snow) or covertly (the lionesses are hidden behind herbs and elude the eyes of his victim, to deceive their prey).

The origin of our lies

Lying is a skill that grows in the depths of us and that we use regularly.Robert Trivers, professor of psychology at Harvard University and Anthropology and Biological Sciences at Rutgers, sums that humans are downright liars although we are not aware of our fabrications . In fact, most of them are unintended but as part of a peculiar evolutionary mechanism that has allowed us to obtain substantial advantages and multiple benefits. And sometimes deny the evidence. But lying seems an intrinsic element of human nature. We lie because it works . Primitive better lying obtained advantage over others in the relentless struggle for reproductive success. As humans, we differ to highlight. And lying help in that task. And lying to ourselves something that is easier to lie to others helps us to accept this fraudulent behaviour: believe our own stories, helps us to be more persuasive. Why Lying is risky, because we issued a series of signals that can betray: automatically raise his voice and our body tenses .
If we lie unconsciously, this does not happen, "Your voice is equal, because your body is not tightening as you think you are not lying," said Trivers. And nobody can catch us. So the delusion is ultimately an evolutionary ingenuity we use to avoid being caught .

We lie not only with words but with many other non-verbal ways: to disguise our true appearance and our body use make-up, hair items, plastic surgery, clothing and other forms of ornaments and fragrances. And we cried "crocodile tears" offer insincere smiles, pretend orgasms and say phrases rarely felt like "Have a nice day."

The lies of human

Human lie us another chronically and with aplomb. Bella DePaulo, a professor at the University of Santa Barbara, researched "the lies of our daily lives" asked 147 people who take anonymous diaries for a week to let seated in the hows and whys of every lie they said. Result: college students said an average of two lies a day and everyone else one. Lies could be included in the category of 'fibs', although there were confessions of adultery, cheating to an employer or to have lied to protect a boss to testify as a witness at trial. Asked about how they had felt to have lied, many admitted feeling persecuted by guilt, but others confessed that when they realized that the hoax had gone well, they did again and again. It also seems that for humans lying is too easy: we do frequently and safely detect. In more than a hundred studies, researchers made ​​the participants questions such as "the person you see in the video, does he lie or tell the truth?". Most people gave the correct answer, so we know when to detect when a person is lying or not.

In fact, some researchers believe that our blindness to lie responds to the desire of humans to be deceived: we prefer a carefully armed fable rather than the raw truth , especially if it is against ourselves.

The sincerity of human

Researchers at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) and Quebec in Montreal sought the causes of why people shown sincere. Started from the only thing that motivates people is their own material benefit: "Always tell the truth if we should materially and if not will lie." But sometimes people say the truth even if they involve a material cost. So they took into account the hypothesis that "people are sincere because he has internalized, and otherwise made ​​to feel negative emotions such as guilt or shame, what is known as pure aversion to lie." And they also took into account other motivations hypothesis: altruism, according to what we think the other expected to say, or the commitment and the desire not to disappoint the expectations of the other. In their experiment, the dilemma of lying arose to earn more money or not do at the expense of earning less, as some monetary payments depending on what is decided were given: to lie or tell the truth. The result was that 40% of people always told the truth, that is, he was averse to lie and not swayed by their own material benefit.The experts also introduced other variables and found that neither the religious tendency, nor the gender or political preferences were related to be honest, but found that relative to the type of studies: people of Economic and Business lied more . The authors also analysed the expectations of the people who always tells the truth and liars. "We saw that honest people believe that others are honest, while those who are dishonest believe that others are going to lie."

What we gain by lying

Sometimes we lie to hide something that the other does not want you to know, but also for convenience, diplomacy, to make a good first impression or to avoid unnecessary and cumbersome explanations. It even seems that lying is essential for our social survival and for a healthy cognitive development: children begin to lie between two and three years, sometimes encouraged by their parents to encourage them to be gracious behaviour (thank an unwanted gift, for example)as part of adaptation to the social environment. Children and adults can lie also to avoid being punished for their behaviour or to impress others on actions that have not. Some studies have shown that children 4 years lie at least once every two hours, and lie approximately 6 every 90 minutes . 

From age 7, the child assimilates the fact that it has secret thoughts that need not be disclosed, and learn to put false false faces or emotions to express his lie believable. Robert Feldman, professor of psychology at the University of Massachusetts He showed how easily our most casual conversations are full of incomplete truths. To do this, he asked two strangers would support a casual conversation for 10 minutes and then listen to the recording. Participants said they had been completely honest in conversation, but were amazed to see how much could lie in just 10 minutes. 60% lied on at least one occasion and had an average of almost three intentionally false statements Other studies show that the 80% of respondents lie psychological surveys to be more intelligent and attractive . 

A survey in the UK on the eve of the sixth season of the series The Big Bang Theory showed that most people resort to the 'white lie' to refer to their level of education and cultural background. As simulators animals, 53% of respondents use social indicators acknowledge intelligentsia (goggles or formal suits) to the need to appear in all specialist areas. In their desperate pursuit of a refined image, 52% adorn their shelves with books you've ever read. And 11% lie about their job and professional status . What's more we pretend to be intellectuals to appear more sexually attractive to potential partners : two-thirds state that attracts the intellect, and 70% say they prefer intelligence to the beauty of your partner. That is, "we make great efforts to create the impression that we are more intelligent than they really are," summarizes the behavioural psychology specialist Jo Hemmings.

20 reasons why we lie

David Livingstone, University of New England (US), summarizes that "lie spontaneously as sweat or breathe." And remember that the human being is the only animal able to deceive himself, because lying has its advantages. Some of the most common (and even sensible) reasons for lying are:-
  1. To get better or excuse 
  2. For what you want. 
  3. To not lose certain rights. 
  4. To give a better image of itself.
  5. To earn respect in a new group. 
  6. To be treated differently. 
  7. To not be denied or punished. 
  8. To influence the perception that someone has on us and whose care we want or want to avoid. 
  9. To provide better image of ourselves ( men) or to make the other person feel better (women).  
  10. To defend our self-esteem (extroverts lie more than introverts).
  11. Protect our privacy and that of others, to resolve uncomfortable situations using the 'touch', or just to look good. 
  12. To sneak a response to know and get rid of shame to admit it. 
  13. To save time or money or win. 
  14. To postpone decisions . 
  15. Not to hurt the feelings of others and do not suffer with the truth. 
  16. To feel better about ourselves. 
  17. To make a good impression to the other. 
  18. To look more curriculum. 
  19. By knowing not recognize certain types of truths (like scientific or mathematical paradoxes). 
  20. To quickly get out of a problem.
Confess the lie
Aldous Huxley summed it up nicely: "A truth without interest may be eclipsed by a thrilling falsehood." So deceptions often accompany us in our public and private life.The professor of psychobiology Martínez Selva says two types of liars: the storyteller and the scoundrel. "The storyteller is someone accustomed to telling lies big and in all fields: it reinvents although they have discovered before; the shameless attempts to gain an advantage to achieve an objective that can not get or do not have the security to achieve ". But lie is a conscious act, but not everyone is able to. The philosopher Alexander Pope assured that "he who tells a lie does not know what task has assumed, because he is obliged to invent twenty more to maintain the accuracy of the first." That is, to lie must be memory; if not, just lie back against you ... And not everyone is able to bear the burden of guilt, so that in the end one is forced to confess.

In recent times, many public figures have been forced to confess their fallacies: cyclist Lance Armstrong admitted that he had doped otherwise after holding for more than ten years, the Barcelona Alicia Esteve was invented to be a survivor of the attacks 11 S, Enric Marco pretended to be a prisoner of the Nazis. And before, Richard Nixon, Bill Clinton, Tiger Woods, Anna Anderson and Ana Rosa Quintana and many others were liars who had to publicly confess his great deception. And politicians who everyone talks? And even economists? That's another matter.


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