Sunday, 22 November 2015

Hallucination- Causes, Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

We all are aware of hallucination more or less. We even know some names like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin, MDMA (euphoria) and Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dirt). These are real hallucinates. Though these things have lots of use as medicine but these are produced illegally around the world as drug addicted people are addicted to these substances also. There are several chemical variants present in our society. Now-a-days unauthorized use of these hallucinating drugs is one of the main issues of our modern society. These can destroy a generation if not restricted. Let’s know something about these hallucinating agents.       

What are hallucinogens?

The first question comes when we start exploring about the hallucination is what is hallucinogens? This is the simplest question can take place in our mind. Although all hallucinating agents create a lot of physical and also mental issues, these agents are varied group of compounds however the interesting part of these compound are that all hallucinogens impact the mind in almost similar ways. It’s very difficult to find out the exact way of actions of all compounds. The system of action of hallucinogens is not completely understood, researchers have shown that these kind of drugs bind with one kind of serotonin (it’s a special type of neuro-receptor in our brain) receptor (5-HT 2) in the brains of all mammals. 

Now the next point comes. What is Serotonin exactly? We all know that it’s a neurotransmitter that actually assists in all type of transmissions of nerve impulses in our brains as well as is it controls all the feelings of our minds like feelings of well being and many physical responses as well. When a hallucinogenic agent bonds with a receptors in our brain it blocks others things (hormone) from being attached with. Thus our actions towards all feelings get lost and we don’t measure all situations around us. All senses go out of our hearts and we don’t have the sense of what is right and what is wrong. Even sometimes due to altered transmission of neurotransmitters our feelings get distorted and we behave in reverse order like we start laughing when the situation is not like that! The result is a distortion of the senses of sight, noise, as well as touch, disorientation in time as well as area, and also changes of state of mind. When it comes to hallucinogen drunkenness, nevertheless, an individual is not normally delirious, unconscious, or dissociated. They understand that these changes in assumption are caused by the hallucinogen.

Some agents that play role as hallucinogens

Several agents play role as hallucinating agents but some of these are really popular among the drug addicted people around the world. These are following.

LSD- lysergic acid diethylamide

We can bet everyone here can recognize this agent. It’s is the best recognized and most potent of the hallucinogens family. It’s first manufactured by Alfred Hoffman for a pharmaceutical laboratory in Germany in 1938 while he was searching for a frustration solution that can impact a lot on our minds and leave its marks deep inside our feelings. Hoffman found the hallucinogenic commercial properties of LSD unintentionally in 1943. And it got the peak of its popularity in mid 60. It altered the moods of the users and altered the swing of the feelings in a great way. Pure LSD is a white substance that has no smell. It looks like a crystalline powder that dissolves very easily in normal water, although impurities in the cube of this hallucinating agent can trigger it to range in color from yellow to dark brown. LSD was detailed as an Category I medicine under the Illegal drug Act of 1970, implying that it has no medical or legal uses and has a high possibility for abuse. And then it got banned in USA first. All the other countries follow the same way within few years. It’s very hard to produce in laboratory that’s why it gets a high price tag on it and maximum times it gets transported or smuggled from neighboring countries.

LSD is a very dangerous hallucinating agent and even a small dose can trigger high hallucination in our minds. LSD can be found in many forms starting from liquid to solid, from sugar like cube to gelatin squares. LSD cab ne found as fluid also. It is used as spray sometimes. 

Mescaline- the high degree plant hallucinating agent

It’s a natural agent which is occurred naturally in plant. The primary resource of this substance is the cactus Lophophora williamsii. This cactus is native to the southwestern United States of America as well as in Northern Mexico. The light blue green plant is tentacle less and has a sweet taste crown called peyote. This one generally contains mescaline as well as could be taken or made into a bitter tea! It’s so interesting, isn’t it? Mescaline was first isolated in 1897 by the German chemist and experts of hallucinating medicine Arthur Hefftner and also first synthesized artificially in 1919. Some experiments were done with the drug to determine if it was medically beneficial, however no medical uses were found. It has actually been used for centuries as part of spiritual celebrations and vision pursuits of Native Americans. The Native American Church, which fuses aspects of Christianity with native techniques, has actually long utilized peyote as part of its religious taboos. In 1970 mescaline was listed as a Schedule I drug under the Substances Act. However, that exact same year the state of Texas legalized peyote for usage in Native American spiritual ceremonies. In 1995, a federal regulation was passed making peyote legal just for this use in all 50 states.

Psilocybin- The king of energetic ingredient

It has been using for long years as hallucinating agents and generally found in a musgroom type outer case. Psilocybin is the energetic ingredient in what are recognized on the street as magic mushrooms, shrooms, mushies, or Mexican mushrooms. There are many varieties of mushrooms that contain psilocybin, consisting of Psilocybe mexicana, P. muscorumi, and Stropharia cubensis. These mushrooms grow in many modest, moist environments. Psilocybin containing mushrooms are generally cooked and served as food (though all these have a bitter taste in common), or dried out and steamed making a tea. Although psilocybin could be made synthetically in labs, there is no flea market for synthetic psilocybin, as well as basically all the medicine originates from cultivated mushrooms. In the United States, it is legal to possess psilocybin-containing mushrooms, but it is unlawful to sell them, as well as psilocybin and also psilocyn (an additional psychedelic drug discovered in little amounts in these mushrooms) are both Category I chemicals.
MDMA- The boss of all hallucinating agents

MDMA is known as one of the most popular drug cum hallucinating agent. MDMA stands for 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and is known better as euphoria, TXC, E, X, or Adam, has come to be an increasingly popular club drug because the 1980s. MDMA was first manufactured in 1912 by a German pharmaceutical company looking for a new compound that would quit hemorrhaging. The company patented the chemical, yet never ever did anything with it. A very closely relevant drug, methylenedioxyamphetimine or MDA, was tested by a pharmaceutical company as a cravings suppressant in the 1950s, however its usage was stopped when it was discovered to have hallucinogenic characteristics. In the 1960s, MDA was a popular drugs which is used as hallucinating agents in some big cities such as San Francisco. The substance and the medicine made of it were declared a prohibited Schedule I medicine in 1985 and it permanently joined other Schedule I hallucinogens in March 1988. In all rave parties MDMA is preferred because it acts as energizers. The American Psychiatric Association thinks about MDMA as a chemical that could cause hallucinogen related disorders. They recommended banning it in 1980 and fortunately in 1985 it was banned throughout USA including all states with no exception.

Some symptoms of hallucination

There are many physical and behavioral symptoms of hallucination. We are discussing about the prime features of main characteristics of hallucination. Notice these interesting symptoms carefully because you may find someone with these near you.

·         Drug addicted people often show withdrawn symptoms and you can notice abnormal blood pressure and heart rate. They can even go faint too. This affect can be very severe and sometimes we need to hospitalize the person affected in an immediate resort.
·         Too much excitement is another symptom of hallucination. You can detect delusional state, excessive stupor in them. But there will be no memory loss in this state. Affected people can recall almost every thing.   
·         A point of lack of self awareness have been seen in the drug addicted and people affected with hallucination.
·         Though death is uncommon in this one but sometimes high blood pressure. 

If there is anyone who is used to LSD then it’s very tough to control the affected people with passive control mechanism. Passive control mechanism involves not providing too many resources to the affected person. Though the affected person is not prone to any other illness or disorders, social anxiety can take place otherwise. Hallucinogens could additionally trigger paranoia, long lasting memory loss, some changes in personality (particularly if there is a hidden psychiatric disorder) and medication dependency in some cases. Repeated use of LSD can trigger something bigger challenge like personality alternation. That means the person does not recognize the truth that he has been taking or addicted to the hallucinating agents for a long term.

Emotional symptoms of hallucination

There are many symptoms that can show up that people has addiction to the hallucinogens. Some of the prime symptoms of emotional category are- lack of any sort of corresponding truth to any incident. Face of the patient might appear to "melt" or shades might come to be brighter. Mental state of the hallucinogen user as well as the whole environment in which the chemical is taken affect the encounter an affected people has. LSD, especially, is recognized for symptoms that range from mellowness and also psychedelic visions (great travels) to anxiousness and panic attacks (bad journeys). Patients with a history of psychological disorders are most likely to experience dangerous responses, as are those who are offered the drug without their awareness.

The principle mental symptoms of hallucinogens are listed below here-

It’s usual that mescaline and psilocybin generate milder symptoms compared to LSD. During some chemical experiments, the patients could experience an array of symptoms. During this period Mood can change from positive to negative or enjoying to frightening and back once again a number of times. Some symptoms can be seen mainly with MDMA, as indicated.

·         A lot of distortions are seen in eye sight and in touches also.
·         Confusion of the senses-- noises are "seen" or vision is "listened to".
·         Severe physical invulnerability (it is seen particularly with LSD).
·         Sight of fear in the characters of person.
·         Social anxiety
·         Reduced focus as well as motivation.
·         Long term memory blackout can be seen in some cases.
·         nausea or vomiting
·         blurred vision

Diagnosis of hallucination

We are sure that all specialists of hallucinogens will not agree on this, the Diagnostic and also Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which provides a general guideline that is made use of by the American Psychiatric Organization for medical diagnosis of mental illness. It acknowledges mainly two hallucinogen related problems.

Hallucinogen dependence and unauthorized intake are typically detected from records by the patients. Physical signs and symptoms can confirm the medical diagnosis of this habit (addiction to hallucination). Routine toxin screening does not find LSD in the blood or pee, although specialized laboratory tests can spot the drug. Hallucinogen dependency is differed from the hallucinating agents. Medicine does not show any withdraw symptoms where drugs show.

Therapies and Treatment of hallucination

Therapies are classified into some section like social therapy, medicine therapy and therapies in family environment. The last one is the most important because it’s the one which can be applied in maximum time. The first and foremost thing in countering hallucination is the social therapy where the affected person are treated with special care, the ultimate goal of the therapies are to make the person realize the bad affect of the drugs.

Prevention of hallucination

There is no cure if the patient is not treated socially. Patients need counseling and social care. Medication can help to an extent but not all things. Remember it’s a habit not a genetically evolved disorder, only controlled medication and social therapies can be proved as most effective. In all drug rehabilitation centers social therapies are applied. Since hallucinogens are not physically addicting, many people are able to quit using these medications effectively. Nevertheless, patients might be in troubles by persistent troubles such as flashbacks of memories or mood swings as well as social anxiety disorders either caused worse by the use of hallucinogens. It is tough to predict that it may have long lasting side effects.


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